The portfolio invests mainly in large- and mid-capitalization companies whose stocks are considered by an advisor to be undervalued. Undervalued stocks are generally those that are out of favor with investors and the advisor feels are trading at prices that are below average in relation to such measures as earnings and book value. These stocks often have above-average dividend yields.
- The portfolio may invest in derivatives. In general, derivatives may involve risks different from, and possibly greater than, those of a portfolio’s other investments. Generally speaking, a derivative is a financial contract whose value is based on the value of a financial asset (such as a stock, bond, or currency), a physical asset (such as gold), or a market index (such as the S&P 500 Index). Investments in derivatives may subject the portfolio to risks different from, and possibly greater than, those of the underlying securities, assets, or market indexes.
- The portfolio may invest, to a limited extent, in futures and options contracts, which are types of derivatives. The portfolio will not use derivatives for speculation or for the purpose of leveraging (magnifying) investment returns.
- The portfolio may enter into forward foreign currency exchange contracts, which are types of derivative contracts. A forward foreign currency exchange contract is an agreement to buy or sell a country’s currency at a specific price on a specific date, usually 30, 60, or 90 days in the future. In other words, the contract guarantees an exchange rate on a given date. Managers of funds that invest in foreign securities can use these contracts to guard against unfavorable changes in U.S. dollar/foreign currency exchange rates. These contracts, however, would not prevent a portfolio’s securities from falling in value during foreign market downswings.
- The portfolio’s daily cash balance may be invested in one or more Vanguard CMT Funds, which are very low-cost money market funds. When investing in a Vanguard CMT Fund, the portfolio bears its proportionate share of the at-cost expenses of the CMT Fund in which it invests.
- The portfolio may temporarily depart from its normal investment policies and strategies when doing so is believed to be in the portfolio’s best interest, so long as the alternative is consistent with the fund’s investment objective. For instance, the fund may invest beyond the normal limits in derivatives or ETFs that are consistent with the fund’s objective when those instruments are more favorably priced or provide needed liquidity, as might be the case when the fund is transitioning assets from one advisor to another or receives large cash flows that it cannot prudently invest immediately.
- The portfolio, may take temporary defensive positions that are inconsistent with its normal investment policies and strategies—for instance, by allocating substantial assets to cash, commercial paper, or other less volatile instruments—in response to adverse or unusual market, economic, political, or other conditions. In doing so, the portfolio may succeed in avoiding losses but may otherwise fail to achieve its investment objective.